# Signals to binary, Chapter 2 — Analog and Binary Signals - Campbell Computer Science Portfolio

A close examination of a digital signal reveals gradual transitions between logic 1 signals to binary logic 0 and vice versa.

The term digital signal has related definitions in different contexts. In digital electronics[ edit ] A five level PAM digital signal In digital electronicsa digital signal is a pulse train a pulse amplitude modulated signali. The pulse trains in digital circuits are typically generated by metal—oxide—semiconductor field-effect transistor MOSFET devices, due to their rapid on—off electronic switching speed and large-scale integration LSI capability.

The analog rise and fall of a digital signal Single Logic Line There are many ways to represent a digital signal over a period of time. The figure below represents a single line a single switch with only two possible values, logic 1 and logic 0.

The essential characteristic is that a single binary device can be in just one of two possible states. A wristwatch is digital because it shows time using definite digits, rather than positions of hands that have to be measured. It would be less correct to say "because it has a computer inside". There are many advantages to binary.

The area between the horizontal hash marks on signals to binary rising and falling edges of the signal represent the period where the signal is undefined and in transition. Representation of a single digital line Multiple lines usually with the same overall function : Sometimes, digital lines are grouped together to perform a single function. This circumstance may be represented with figures such as the one below.

Representation of multiple digital lines Alternatively, these multiple lines can be combined into a more abstract representation such as the one below. Alternative representation of multiple digital lines Basic Logic and Logic Operations Logic Symbols Below are the primary logic symbols used in digital design.

Basic logic symbols Each of these symbols has one or more inputs lines coming in from the left side and one output line exiting from the right. The symbols can be added together to create complex circuits. For example, adding a small circle to signals to binary input or an output of a logic symbol is identical to adding an inverter at that input or output. Logic symbol with an inverter tied to the output Logic 1's or logic 0's are sent into the inputs of these symbols, and by definition, a specific logic 1 or logic 0 is expected on the output.

The following section describes which symbols have which outputs based on a certain set of inputs. Truth Tables Now, we need a method to represent how to combine two or more binary signals to produce an output or function. In general, a truth table shows the relationship between columns of inputs and their associated outputs.